# The Representation Theory of the Discrete Fourier Transform

## Functions on Groups

Given a finite group $G$, I want to consider the algebra of complex-valued functions on $G$ (i.e. $\{f:G \to \C\}$).

Why? There are several reasons to study this algebra of functions. From a purely group-theoretic perspective, it is interesting because it can help you understand groups better. Today, however, I'll mostly focus on applications to CS.

### What algebra structure are we using?

There are multiple choices of algebra structure on the set of functions $\{f:G \to \C\}$. Addition and scalar multiplication are pretty straightforward; clearly they should be done pointwise. You might also want to multiply the functions pointwise. This defines a perfectly fine algebra, but then nothing in our algebra actually depends on the group structure. We want to take advantage of the group structure to study these functions. So we won't define multiplication this way. Instead, we take the slightly stranger definition that
\[
f_1 * f_2 (g) := \sum_{g_1 g_2 = g} f_1(g_1)\cdot f_2(g_2)
\]
We call this product *convolution*.

### Miscellaneous facts about $\C[G]$

For $h \in G$, we define the $\delta$-function \[ \delta_h(g) := \begin{cases} 1 & g = h\\0 & \text{otherwise}\end{cases} \] With the convolution product, the multiplicative identity is the function $\delta_e$.

You can check that \[ f \star \delta_e(g) = \sum_{g_1g_2 = g} f(g_1) \delta_e(g_2) = f(g)\delta_e(e) = f(g) \] One useful basis for $\C[G]$ is given by $\{\delta_h\;|\;h \in G\}$.

We can define a hermitian product on $\C[G]$ by \[ \inrp {f_1} {f_2} := \frac 1 {|G|} \sum_{g \in G} f_1(g) \cdot \overline{f_2(g)} \]

### Example: $\C[\Z/n\Z]$

Suggestively, I'll denote $\delta_k$ by $x^k$. Then, elements of $\C[\Z/n\Z]$ are sums $a = \sum_{i=0}^{n-1} a_i x^i$. The product is given by \[ a\cdot b = \sum_{i = 0}^{n-1} \left[\sum_{j + k = i} a_j b_k \right]x^i \] So we see that $\C[\Z/n\Z] = \C[x]/(x^n-1)$. This is an important example for CS applications.

One useful tool for studying rings is studying modules over that ring. This trick will be very helpful to us.

### Modules over $\C[G]$

Let $M$ be a module over $\C[G]$. First, we note that we can use our action of $\C[G]$ on $M$ to define an action of $\C$ on $M$. Simply define $\lambda \cdot m := (\lambda \delta_e) \cdot m$ for all $m \in M$. You can check that this makes $M$ into a complex vector space. Since $\delta_e$ is the multiplicative identity, it commutes with every element of $\C[G]$. So the action of every other element of $\C[G]$ on $M$ is linear with respect to this $\C$-action.

Furthermore, given a $\C$-vector space structure on $M$, the $\C[G]$ module structure is entirely determined by how each $\delta_g$ acts on $M$. So we can describe $M$ as a complex vector space along with a map $\rho:G \to \Aut(M)$.

## Representations

- Any nonzero morphism between two irreps is an isomorphism.
- Any nonzero morphism from an irrep to itself is an isomorphism.

- Let $E, F$ be irreps. Suppose $\phi : E \to F$. $\ker \phi$ is a linear subspace of $E$. And if $\phi(v) = 0$, then $\phi(gv) = g \phi(v) = 0$. So $\ker \phi$ is $G$-invariant. Similarly, $\im \phi$ is a linear subspace of $F$. And if $w = \phi(v)$, then $gw = \phi(gv)$. So $\im \phi$ is also $G$-invariant. Since $E$ and $F$ are irreducible, this means that $\ker \phi$ and $\im \phi$ are either 0 or the whole vector space. If $\phi$ is nonzero, we must have $\ker \phi \neq E$, $\im \phi \neq 0$. So $\phi$ must be an isomorphism.
- Let $\phi:E \to E$ be a nonzero morphism. Since we are working over $\C$, it must have a nonzero eigenvalue $\lambda$. Thus, $\phi - \lambda \I$ is not an isomorphism. By (a), it must be 0. So $\phi = \lambda \I$.

## Characters

Now we've gone full circle and come back to $\C[G]$.

Note: $\chi_V$ is constant on conjugacy classes of $G$.

\[ \chi_V(hgh^{-1}) = \Tr[\rho(hgh^{-1})] = \Tr[\rho(h)\rho(g)\rho(h^{-1})] = \Tr[\rho(g)\rho(h^{-1})\rho(h)] = \Tr[\rho(g)] = \chi_V(g) \]So we can also think the characters are complex-valued class functions.

There's a very nice theorem about the inner products of characters.

I don't have time to prove this at the moment. It's not too hard, though.

Therefore, the characters of irreps are an orthonormal subset of the group algebra.

Fact: the number of irreducible representations of $G$ is the same as the number of conjugacy classes of $G$. Therefore, characters of irreps form a basis for the space of class functions on $G$.

## Example: $\C[\Z/n\Z]$

Recall that $\C[\Z/n\Z] = \C[x]/(x^n-1)$, the ring of polynomials modulo $(x^n-1)$. What do these look like in the irreducible character basis?

### What are the irreps of $\Z/n\Z$?

Thus, to find the irreps of $\Z/n\Z$, we only have to consider homomorphisms $\phi : \Z/n\Z \to \Aut[\C] = \C \setminus \{0\}$. Since $\Z/n\Z$ is cyclic, these homomorphisms are determined by $\phi(1)$. Since 1 has order $n$ in $\Z/n\Z$, $\phi(1)$ must be an $n$th root of unity. Let $\omega$ be a primitive $n$th root of unity. Then for all $k = 0, \ldots, n-1$ we get a homomorphism $\phi_k : \Z/n\Z \to \C$ given by $\phi_k(1) = \omega^k$. Since we have found $n$ irreducible representations, we have them all. Since the representations are all 1-dimensional, these are also the irreducible characters.

We can express a function on $\Z/n\Z$ in the character basis by taking its inner products with the irreducible characters. \[ \inrp {\phi_k} f = \sum_{\ell=0}^{n-1} \phi_k(\ell) \overline{f(\ell)} = \sum_{\ell=0}^{n-1} \overline{f(\ell)} \omega^{\ell k}\] Recall, we expressed these functions $f$ as $f = \sum_{\ell = 0}^{n-1} f(\ell) x^{\ell}$. So this is essentially evaluating the polynomial on $\omega^k$. This also looks a lot like the Fourier transform. In fact, it is the Discrete Fourier Transform.

If we write the function as a column vector, we can express this operation by the matrix \[ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & \cdots & 1\\ 1 & \omega & \omega^2 & \omega^3 & \cdots & \omega^{n-1}\\ 1 & \omega^2 & \omega^4 & \omega^6 & \cdots & \omega^{2(n-1)}\\ 1 & \omega^3 & \omega^6 & \omega^9 & \cdots & \omega^{3(n-1)}\\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\ 1 & \omega^{n-1} & \omega^{2(n-1)} & \omega^{3(n-1)} & \cdots & \omega^{(n-1)(n-1)} \end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix} \overline{f(0)}\\ \overline{f(1)}\\ \overline{f(2)}\\ \overline{f(3)}\\ \vdots\\ \overline{f(n-1)} \end{pmatrix} \] It turns out that because this matrix is so regularly-structured, we can compute this matrix-vector product really quickly. The Fast Fourier Transform lets us compute this in $O(n \log n)$ time, which is must faster than the naive $O(n^2)$ time for regular matrix-vector products. The Fast Fourier Transform has applications all over CS. It's used in signal processing, data compression (e.g. image processing), solving PDEs, multiplying polynomials, multiplying integers, and convolution, among other things.

I will share it with my other friends as the information is really very useful. Keep sharing your excellent work.Buy Hgh Online USA

ReplyDeleteThank you because you have been willing to share information with us. we will always appreciate all you have done here because I know you are very concerned with our. Sandy Hook Parent

ReplyDeleteHealthfitpharm produce customized intermediate products. We have professional research and development department and strict quality control system to make sure top quality product with every order to anywhere in the world. HGH for Sale online

ReplyDeleteThe post is written in very a good manner and it contains many useful information for me.I high appreciate this post. It’s hard to find the good from the bad sometimes, but I think you’ve nailed it! would you mind updating your blog with more information I admit, I have not been on this web page in a long time... however it was another joy to see It is such an important topic and ignored by so many, even professionals. I thank you to help making people more aware of possible issues.Same day COVID 19 Test in Houston

ReplyDeleteYes, I am entirely agreed with this article, and I just want say that this article is very helpful and enlightening. I also have some precious piece of concerned info !!!!!!Thanks. website

ReplyDeleteI’ve been searching for some decent stuff on the subject and haven't had any luck up until this point, You just got a new biggest fan!.. 릴게임

ReplyDeleteNice to be visiting your blog once more, it has been months for me. Well this article that ive been waited for therefore long. i want this article to finish my assignment within the faculty, and it has same topic together with your article. Thanks, nice share. 토토커뮤니티

ReplyDeleteThankyou for this wondrous post, I am glad I observed this website on yahoo. 안전놀이터

ReplyDeleteI really loved reading your blog. It was very well authored and easy to understand. Unlike other blogs I have read which are really not that good.Thanks alot! 먹튀검증

ReplyDeleteWe are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. I was exactly searching for. Thanks for such post and please keep it up. Great work. 대전1인샵

ReplyDeleteCool stuff you have got and you keep update all of us. test bank nursing

ReplyDeleteThankyou for this wondrous post, I am glad I observed this website on yahoo. 먹튀검증

ReplyDeleteI really like your writing style, great information, thankyou for posting. 먹튀검증

ReplyDeletethanks this is good blog. 먹튀검증

ReplyDeleteYes, I am entirely agreed with this article, and I just want say that this article is very helpful and enlightening. I also have some precious piece of concerned info !!!!!!Thanks. 온라인바둑이

ReplyDelete